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  • Writer's pictureJackson McMahan

How Checklists Can Help Combat Executive Functioning Challenges

Updated: 14 hours ago

By guest writer Jackson McMahan

For many of us, the brain's executive functions act as an unseen conductor, orchestrating the many tasks, decisions, and behaviors we perform daily. That said, for many neurodivergent individuals, this conductor can sometimes communicate in whispers, which turns coordinating life's many complexities into

a challenging task.

A smiling woman sitting on the floor with a laptop computer, looking up at the word "checklist" in all caps with three checkboxes above it.

Executive functioning covers the important set of mental skills that include working memory, flexible thinking, and self-control. These skills allow us to plan, focus attention, remember instructions, and successfully juggle multiple tasks.

For neurodivergent individuals, these executive processes can present distinct hurdles. From organizing a day's schedule to initiating a task or adapting to an unexpected change, the process of learning skills that increase autonomy can seem strewn with obstacles. However, amidst these challenges lies a simple yet powerful tool – the humble checklist.

Checklists, with their clear structure and step-by-step breakdown, can become a lifeline for those grappling with executive functioning challenges. This tool is more than a simple to-do list; it’s a visual strategy that can declutter the mind, guide actions, and reduce anxiety caused by the fear of forgetting or becoming overwhelmed by complexity. For neurodivergent individuals, checklists offer a tangible method to navigate the abstract world of time management, organization, and task completion.

Understanding Executive Functioning

Executive functioning is akin to the brain’s command center. It covers the high-level cognitive processes that enable us to manage our daily lives. For neurodivergent individuals, the nuances of executive functioning can be both a playground of strengths and a maze of challenges.

Definition of Executive Functioning

Executive functioning refers to the cognitive abilities that control and regulate other abilities and behaviors. It includes three key dimensions:

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  • Cognitive flexibility: The capacity to switch one's thinking and adapt to new situations.

  • Working memory: The ability to hold and manipulate information in the mind over short periods.

  • Inhibitory control: The skill to suppress distractions and impulsive responses.

Common Executive Functioning Challenges in Neurodivergent Individuals

For neurodivergent individuals, these skills often do not come instinctively and instead manifest in various ways. How executive functioning skills challenges manifest in neurodivergent individuals can include:

  • Difficulty with organization: Struggling with organizing tasks, belongings, or activities can lead to clutter, both physically and mentally.

  • The trouble with initiating and completing tasks: Starting and following through on a task can be daunting without the intrinsic guideposts that neurotypical individuals might take for granted.

  • Time management obstacles: Perceiving time and its passage, as well as estimating the duration of tasks, can often be a source of stress and anxiety.

  • Struggles with working memory: Remembering a sequence of steps or holding several instructions in mind at once can lead to an inability to complete multi-step instructions without writing things down.

  • Inflexible thinking: Difficulty adapting to change or transitioning from one task to another can make daily routines more challenging.

Impact of Executive Functioning Challenges on Daily Life

When dealing with executive functioning challenges, neurodivergent individuals can find themselves facing many struggles in their daily lives. Some examples of these struggles include the following:

  • Completing school or work assignments within given timeframes.

  • Managing personal finances due to struggles with planning and organization.

  • Keeping up with personal care routines that require sequencing and memory.

  • Navigating social interactions that require quick cognitive shifts and impulse control.

That said, these challenges do not define the capabilities of neurodivergent individuals. With the right tools and support, the executive functioning maze can be successfully navigated.

A dirt path through a sunny, grassy area leading into the distance.

Checklists stand out as one of these tools to provide a clear path forward. Through tailored strategies, they can be adapted to meet a wide range of needs and preferences and offer a beacon of structure in the daily pursuit of independence and success.

The Checklist as a Strategic Tool

A checklist does more than remind us of what tasks we need to complete. It also visually represents our goals and the steps required to achieve them. For neurodivergent individuals struggling with executive functioning challenges, a checklist is not just a tool but a strategic ally for improving executive functioning.

What is a Checklist?

A checklist is an ordered list of items that need to be checked off or completed. It can serve many purposes, such as the following:

  • Routine checklists cover daily activities such as morning preparations or bedtime habits.

  • Task-specific checklists detail the steps needed to accomplish a particular job or assignment.

  • Event-based checklists: outline the actions required to successfully participate in events like social gatherings or public outings.

The Psychological Benefits of Using Checklists

Checklists also offer psychological benefits. This is especially true for anyone struggling with executive functions. Some of these benefits include the following:

A grid of checkboxes and a hand adding checkmarks with a pen.
  • Reduced Anxiety: Seeing tasks laid out sequentially can diminish the anxiety of anticipation and the stress of remembering each step.

  • Increased Motivation: Checking off a completed task delivers a sense of accomplishment, which encourages continued progress.

  • Improved Self-Esteem: Consistently completing checklist items can boost one’s confidence in their ability to manage tasks and responsibilities.

How Checklists Align with the Cognitive Profile of Many Neurodivergent Individuals

The structure and predictability of a checklist can be resonant with the cognitive inclinations of many neurodivergent individuals. Here are some of the ways checklists can cognitively work for neurodivergent individuals:

  • Clear Boundaries: Checklists provide a visual and conceptual boundary around a task or set of tasks to make them less overwhelming.

  • Concrete Sequences: The step-by-step nature of checklists aligns with the preference for concrete thinking, which offers a tangible pathway to follow.

  • Visual Cues: Many neurodivergent individuals respond well to visual aids, and checklists can be enhanced with images, colors, and symbols to improve understanding and recall.

Creating Effective Checklists

For neurodivergent individuals, personalized checklists that cater to their unique strengths and challenges can be a game-changer for enhancing executive functioning. Here’s how to create a checklist that not only supports task completion but also builds competence and confidence.

Identifying Areas of Need

Before creating your checklist, it's important to pinpoint the areas where support is most needed. Common areas include:

  • Personal Hygiene: Checklists can help manage hygiene routines like brushing teeth, bathing, and dressing.

  • Daily Routines: Morning, after-school, and bedtime routines can be structured effectively with a checklist.

  • Work or School Tasks: Assignments can be broken down into actionable steps to ensure progress and completion.

  • Social Interactions: Preparing for and engaging in social activities can be made smoother with the help of a social interaction checklist.

Steps to Create a Personalized Checklist

Once the areas of need are identified, the following steps can help craft a practical checklist. These steps include the following:

  • Breaking Down Tasks into Simple Steps: Each task should be divided into its most basic components to ensure clarity and achievability.

  • Prioritizing Tasks by Importance or Difficulty: Ordering tasks by priority helps you effectively manage your time and effort.

  • Considering the Use of Visual Aids: For visual thinkers, adding symbols, colors, or images can make the checklist more engaging and understandable.

  • Implementing a Reward System: Incorporating a system of rewards can motivate and reinforce the completion of checklist items.

Tools and Resources for Checklist Creation

There are also many tools and resources available to help you create the perfect checklist. Here are some of those tools

A tool box with various red and black tools laying open on a black surface.
  • Apps and Digital Tools: Technology offers customizable checklist apps that can be accessed on various devices, like your phone or computer. In particular, we like for its ability to break tasks down into step-by-step instructions at customizable levels of detail. Todoist is also particularly helpful for creating checklists, prioritizing tasks, and rewarding consistent use of the app.

  • Printable Checklist Templates: Pre-designed templates provide a quick start option that can be further customized.

  • DIY Checklists with Physical Materials: For anyone preferring a tactile approach, creating a physical checklist with materials like paper, markers, and stickers can be more engaging.

Implementing and Adapting Checklists

Once you have created a personalized checklist, the next step is to implement it into your routine. Consistently using a checklist and adjusting it to fit evolving needs ensures it remains an effective support tool.

Tips for Effective Checklist Implementation

Implementation requires a practical and patient approach. Here are some strategies for making checklists a key part of your daily routine:

  • Start Small: Begin with a short checklist for a particular part of the day or a specific task to avoid getting overwhelmed.

  • Consistency is Key: Use the checklist at the same time and in the same manner each day to establish a routine.

  • Place Checklists Strategically: Ensure your checklists are readily accessible, whether they’re on a mobile device or posted in a visible spot in your home, office, or classroom.

  • Review Regularly: Set aside time to review your checklist to figure out what’s working and what’s not working.

  • Be Flexible with Changes: Adjust the checklist as tasks are mastered or as new challenges arise.

Overcoming Obstacles in Checklist Use

Challenges in using checklists can sometimes occur, so if they happen, then it’s important to manage them with care. The following list covers some of those obstacles and how to overcome them:

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  • Resistance to Change: Gradual introduction and positive reinforcement can help ease the adoption of a new checklist.

  • Task Saturation: If a checklist becomes too long or complex, it might become counterproductive. Regular reviews help streamline tasks to a manageable number.

  • Adapting to Different Environments: Checklists may need to vary for different settings, such as home versus school. Tailoring them to fit these environments can enhance their effectiveness.


Neurodivergent individuals face many challenges when trying to improve their executive functioning skills, but doing so means undergoing a process that’s rich with opportunities for growth and self-discovery. Checklists are not a panacea, nor are they a mere collection of tasks; they are dynamic tools that can help neurodivergent individuals transform their approach to daily living, one ticked box at a time.

The true power of checklists lies in their simplicity and the clarity they bring to the complex cognitive processes involved in executive functioning. They serve as an external aid that complements the internal efforts of neurodivergent individuals and provide a tangible track to run on in the marathon of daily tasks and responsibilities.

For anyone finding solace in the structured embrace of a checklist, the invitation is always open to continue refining this tool. Regular adaptation ensures that checklists remain in tune with the user’s evolving needs to maintain their relevance and effectiveness as circumstances change.

In a world that’s often unpredictable and overwhelming, a checklist stands as a beacon of order and progress. Whether it's used to manage personal care routines, academic assignments, or social engagements, this tool has the potential to smooth the path forward, replacing uncertainty with certainty, and hesitation with action.


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